What can be powered from 100W Solar Panel Comment

What can work from one 100W solar panel? We often hear this question from newcomers in the world of solar energy and from those who are only going to immerse.Usually, when we design a solar power station, we begin with a list of electrical appliances that should work from solar power plant, t.E. We compile a list of loads. Based on this, the quantity and power of solar panels, as well as the accompanying equipment. Now we will act from the opposite. Let’s see what we can power from one solar panel with a capacity of 100 watts.

When we say that the solar panel has a power of 100W, then such power it produces with solar radiation intensity 1000W / m². Usually such intensity happens in summer in clear weather, when the sun is in Zenith. Naturally, manufacturers do not run each time on the street with a solar panel, they test their power under certain laboratory conditions. STC (Standart Test Conditions) or so-called “standard test conditions”. These conditions are as follows:

  • Solar radiation intensity 1000 W / m²
  • Air temperature 25 ° С
  • The sun rays fall perpendicular to the solar panel
  • wind speed is zero
  • Air mass 1.5
  • Some other criteria

Thus, the real output power of solar panels may vary depending on external weather conditions. When calculating usually we underestimate the power of solar panels based on the difference between laboratory tests and your real installation.If the 12V solar panel has a power of 100W, then it meant the instantaneous power. If you measure under STC conditions, then we must get the output voltage ~ 18V and current 5.55A. Power is a product of voltage on the current (P = VI), therefore 18V 5.55A = 100W.

Here you can even carry out a small analogy with a car, power is like a vehicle speed. If the car rides with a constant speed 100km / h, then in 1 hour it will drive 100km. Same with the solar panel. To determine how much energy will be produced during a certain time, you need to multiply the amount of watts by the number of hours. For example, in 1 hour 100W x 1 h = 100vatt hours = 100W h.

If you consider all this on a specific solar panel, you can take a Delta SM 100-12P solar panel optimal operating voltage 18.1B (UMP) and optimal operating current 5.52A. eighteen.1B x 5.52a = 99.91W (100W).

What solar modules work better with reduced light and scattered light?

In the Specifications for solar modules, parameters are specified at STC (standard test conditions). Real operating conditions may differ significantly from STC. Usually solar panels in Russia work when illuminated lower than 1000 W / m² and the weather is cloud or even cloudy. Solar modules of different types and even one type, but different manufacturers work differently in real operating conditions.

Therefore, the question arises. what solar modules are better to buy so that they work most effectively with cloud weather and scattered light? The main parameter that is important to us when evaluating the effectiveness of solar cells is the amount of energy produced during the period of time (day, week, month, year). What modules produce more energy at low light? Consider the main types of modules. single crystal, polycrystalline, thin-film amone silicon, single crystal Perc modules. these are the main modules represented now in the Russian market.

Often ask a question. which modules work better with cloud weather and scattered light? Under low illumination and partial shading, thin-film modules work better. Also, better than ordinary mono and polycrystalline modules with reduced illumination, modules manufactured by PERC technology are operating (we have such modules in our assortment).

For the standard module, it is precisely to say which module is a single crystal or polycrystalline. it will be more developed into cloud weather. It all depends on the quality of the manufacturer. Only branded modules will guarantee maximum working under various working conditions. Be sure to see if a manufacturer or brand is present in the list of modules that have been tested by an independent laboratory on the PCT parameter

Cheap modules are made with glass without anti-glare coating (one of the popular suppliers in Russia sells such modules). They give the stated parameters when testing at the factory, when the modules are irradiated at a right angle to the plane. But as soon as the angle of falling the sunlight becomes not perpendicular to the surface of the element, a significant part of the sunlight is reflected in low-quality glass. Also, very badly such modules work on the scattered light. As a result, the energy generation of such a module can be less than 2 times compared with the energy generation of the same rated power, but made by the famous brand and the manufacturer responsible for its quality.

Therefore, we will repeat our ultimate council that we give in our leadership of the buyer of solar panels. do not buy solar modules under the Russian importer brand! You will save on purchase, but lose energy (and this is the main quality indicator of solar batteries). As a result, the cost of electricity from your solar battery will be more expensive than if you bought a high-quality solar panel of a well-known manufacturer.

The whole truth about the efficiency of solar panels (10 photos)

The owner of one house, who installed the solar panels and followed the year for their work, decided to share his impressions about such devices. Calculating savoible electricity, he concluded that the expediency of using such a system.

Now you will learn what the sellers of solar panel will never tell.

Exactly a year ago, in October 2015, I decided to sign up in the ranks of “green”, saving our planet from premature death, and acquired solar panels with a maximum power of 200 watts and a grid inverter with a maximum of 300 (500) watts produced power. In the photo you can see the structure of the polycrystalline 200-watt panel, but in a couple of days after purchase it became clear that in a single configuration, it has too low voltage, insufficient for the proper operation of my grid inverter.

So I had to change it on two 100-watt single-crystal panels. Theoretically, they should be a little more efficient, they are just more expensive. These are high quality panels, Russian SunWays brand. For two panels I paid 14 800.

Second article costs. Chinese-made grid inverter. The manufacturer did not designate himself, but the device was done qualitatively, and the autopsy showed that the internal components are designed to power up to 500 watts (instead of 300 written on the housing). There is such a grid of only 5,000. Grid is a brilliant device. On the one hand it is connected to it and. From solar panels, and on the other hand, it is completely connected to any electrical outlet in your home using a conventional electric fork. In the process of operation, the grid adjusts to the frequency on the network and begins to “pump out” alternating current (converted from constant) into your home network 220 volts.

Grid works only if there is a voltage in the network and cannot be considered as a backup power supply. This is his only minus. And the colossal advantage of the inverter grid is that you basically do not need batteries. After all, the batteries are the weakest link in alternative energy. If the same solar panel is guaranteed for more than 25 years (that is, in 25 years, it will lose about 20% of its performance), then the service life of an ordinary lead battery in similar conditions will be 3-4 years. Gel and AGM batteries last longer, up to 10 years old, but they are 5 times more expensive than ordinary batteries.

Since I have network electricity, I do not need any batteries. If you do the autonomous system, then you need to add another 15-20 thousand for the battery and the controller to it.

Now that concerns electricity generation. All energy generated by sunbathing in real time enters the network. If there are consumers of this energy in the house, then it will be all spent, and the meter at entering the house “spin” will not. If the instant energy generation exceeds currently consumed, then all the energy will be transferred back to the network. That is, the counter will “spin” in the opposite direction. But there are nuances.

First, many modern electronic counters consider the current passing through them without taking into account its direction (that is, you will pay for the electricity disclosed in the network). And secondly, Russian legislation does not allow individuals to sell electricity. Such is permitted in Europe and that is why every second house has been tightened by solar panels, which, in aggregate with high network tariffs, allows you to really save.

What to do in Russia? Do not put solar panels that can produce energies more than current day power consumption in the house. It is for this reason that I have only two panels with a total capacity of 200 watts, which, taking into account the losses of the inverter, can give the network about 160-170 watts. And my house consumes about 130-150 watts in an hour. That is, the energy produced by solar panels will be guaranteed to be consumed inside the house.

To control the energy generated and consumed, I use SMAPPEE. I already wrote about him last year. He has two current transformers that allow you to record both the network and generated by solar electricity panels.

solar, battery, work, light, bulb

On the Internet there are many calculators of solar power plants. From my source data according to the calculator, it follows that the average annual electricity generation of my solar panels will be 0.66 kWh / day, and the total development for the year. 239.9 kWh.

This is the data for ideal weather conditions and excluding losses for the conversion of DC into variable (you are not going to redo the power supply of your household on constant voltage?). In reality, the resulting digit can be safely divided into two.

Compare with real data on the year:

2015 year. 5.84 kvktsyttysttymer. 2.96 kWh (from October 10) November. 1.5 kvchdekard. 1.38 kWh2016 year. 111.7 kvchyanvar. 0.75 kvchfevral. 5.28 kvchmart. 8.61 kvchaprel. 14 kvchmay. 19.74 Kvchiyun. 19.4 kvchiyul. 17.1 kvchavgust. 17,53 kvchsseby. 7.52 kvkttystyemba. 1.81 kWh (until October 10)

Here is a schedule for the production and consumption of electricity in a country house for the last 6 months (April-October 2016). It was for April-August that the lion’s share (more than 70%) of electrical energy was developed by sunbathing. Over the past few months, the production was impossible for the most part due to cloudiness and snow. Well, do not forget that the efficiency of the Grid on DC conversion to the variable is approximately 60-65%.

How to choose a solar panel lamp

By type of construction

In the lighting equipment stores you can find autonomous street lamps of the following types:

  • Soil. they have a leg with a pointed end, which simply sticks into the ground. Such models are perfectly suitable for lighting garden tracks and flower.
  • Wall-mounted. they are attached to the facades of houses, veranda, housekeeping and other vertical surfaces. These lamps can be used, for example, to illuminate the porch of the house and the entrance doors.
  • Suspended. they have such fasteners that allow placing instruments in almost any location. Suspended lamps are often used as decorative, decorating with them trees, recreation areas, space arbors and t.D.
  • Embedded. they are mounted in a vertical or horizontal surface: coating tracks, ceiling arbor, stairs and t.D. Such models are used as marking or decorative.

In order for the lamp that feeds from the Sun, it worked correctly, you need to carefully select a place to install it on the plot. Even minimal shading can affect the speed and degree of battery charging. And if the battery is not completely charged, the lamp will not provide the desired level of illumination of the territory. Where devices do not have “access” to a rich stream of sunlight, it is better to duplicate them with traditional lamps.

By power light stream

This parameter determines the intensity (brightness) of lighting, which is created by solar lights. The brightness of the LED is estimated in lumens (LM). LED lamp with a light stream of 400 lm shines also brightly like a 60W incandescent light bulb.

solar, battery, work, light, bulb

Low power devices (10-100 lm) can be used as marking or decorative. If the lamps are needed for full lighting a certain part of the country territory, you need to select devices with more powerful LEDs (from 700 lm).

By material

The enclosures of the lamps can be made of stainless steel, bronze, plastic of increased strength, as well as wood and various metal alloys. Choosing a device by material, you need to focus on the conditions for its further operation and on the common landscape concept of a country or household plot.

The most inexpensive and practical options are plastic, more solid and durable. made of steel and alloys. Wooden lamps will require a careful relationship and regular care. So that the tree does not lose the initial view under the influence of humidity and temperature drops, it will need to periodically process special compositions.

By security class

Lamps for street operation must necessarily be adapted to the negative impact of external factors (high humidity, temperature differences, dust, dirt and t.P.). In what conditions, one or another can be used, you can judge the IP index, which is assigned to all types of lighting equipment.

IP. class of dust and moisture protection of the lamp. The digital value of the index indicates permissible operating conditions. For street lanterns, the minimum security class. IP44. You can learn from this or that model of the lamp from his passport.

Frequently Asked Questions about Solar Chargers

one.What is a solar charger? Charger on solar panels is some photocells that convert the sun energy into a constant electric current. The modern solar charger has the ability to charge both telephones and tablets and netbooks, laptops and batteries 12 V.At the moment there are many different solar devices in today’s market, batteries and solar panels from various manufacturers.

2.How the Solar Charger works?

If this is a solar charger with a battery, then when you get to the sunny panel of sunlight, they are converted into energy, thereby charging the built-in battery, and the battery charges the devices. If this is a solar battery without a battery, then the sun’s rays fall on the solar panel, transformed into energy and directly charge the devices.

3.What is solar charging?

The solar battery charger consists of a solar panel, built-in battery, charge / discharge controller, converter, used in a metal or rubber case. Solar battery without a battery consists of solar panels, charge / discharge controller, converter, used usually into waterproof fabric.

4.What portable technique can be charged with a solar charger?

Solar Charger can charge: player, telephone, smartphone, camera, tablet, netbook, laptop and other related devices.

5.What types of solar charges are?

Solar charging are 2 types: solar charging with a battery (capacity from 4000 mAh to 25000 mAh) and solar charging without battery (solar panel power from 3 to 300 W). Also on the solar device market, you can find a folding type model, but already with a battery. SP 8000 (5 Watt).

6.Is it possible to drop solar charging?

Solar Charger, like any other technique, not recommended to drop. Since even if there is a shockproof in the properties, it means that it is less likely that there will be damage during a random drop or it will be reflected in its technical condition, but does not exclude its failure.

7.Why charging with the same power have a different price?

This may be if the solar chargers are released by various manufacturers, then the price is affected by the material, the quality of the assembly, the real capacity of the battery, the price policy of the manufacturer and other properties, due to this may differ.

eight.Why the specified output current 1 A and 2.1 and does not always give maximum?

The output current may differ from the specified one, due to the fact that when charging the device, the current required for uniform charging is automatically selected and then it automatically decreases during the end of the charge.

nine.Is it possible to make solar charging yourself?

Make a high-quality solar device almost impossible! No savings, t.to. The experience is proved that at the cost of all parts and accessories, the solar charger is more expensive than purchased in the online store. Yes, and the possibility of using, durability and quality of charge is also reduced to zero. Outcome: If you want to have a good solar charger, which will last you for a long time, you can buy it in specialized stores, where there is a quality certificate and warranty.

ten.How many built-in battery can serve?

The average number of complete charge / discharge cycles is about 1000, after that, the battery gradually begins to lose the container, with time the battery capacity decreases by 15-20%. Under one cycle should be understood the charge from 0 to 100%, t.E. If you charge and discharge the device is not completely, it will last a longer.

eleven.If you have solar charging ports, it is not specified which output current in them, how to determine?

If the ports are not written, what output current in the device, then as a rule there are other designations, for example: port A, port in or drawn 1 zip sign or 2 zipper or port 1 and port 2. In such cases: Port A, 1 Lightning and Port 1. output current 1 A, and port in, 2 zipper and port 2 has an output current of 2.1 A.

12.Is the battery capacity, specified in the description?

In most cases, the capacity is real, however, in some devices the power is lower than the stated (in our online store in the reviews of the goods, the real capacity of the battery is always indicated, after testing the solar device by our specialists). In addition, it is worth considering that in the process of charging devices: smartphone, tablet, laptop, natural losses occur, which can affect the reduction of battery capacity from 10-15%.

thirteen.If one of the charging properties is waterproof what it means?

Testing

First of all, it was interesting to find out what real power can be obtained from solar panels. For this 15, the ADS115 ADC fee was purchased for Raspberry PI:

Use it simply, the input voltage is divided by a divider and is fed to analog input, we have digital values ​​at the output. Source code for working with ADCs can be taken here. The ACS712 current sensor was bought, the voltage sensor was made of a handheld of resistors (only one nominal was found at home). An ordinary light bulb was installed as a load. Of course, it was not burning from 48 volts (the light was calculated on 220V), but only barely glow. The resistance of the spiral is 42 Ohm, which voltage allows you to roughly estimate the power (although the incandescent lamp resistance is non-linear, but it will come for a rough catch).

The source was doped so that the data and the current time are stored in CSV, the WEB server was launched on Raspberry PI to download files over the local network.

Solar panel experiment with artificial light | How to use solar panel at night science project

The results for the usual quite clear day with variable cloudiness look like this:

solar, battery, work, light, bulb

It can be seen that the peak of voltage falls on an early morning that there is a consequence of improper installation of panels. ideally they should not stand vertically.

But it looks like a “failure” a day, when clouded clouds, and it rained:

Considering the voltage of 44V and the resistance of the filament of the lamp in 42ms, it is possible to roughly estimate (the nonlinearity of the lamp resistance ignore), which, at best, the resulting power P = UU / R = 46W. Alas, the efficiency of a 100-watt panel with a vertical installation is not very good. the sun’s rays fall into the panel not at right angles. In the worst case (cloudy, rain) power drops even to 10W. In winter and summer, the total energy obtained will also be different.

Experience with the return of energy directly to the network was unsuccessful: 500-watt inverter from 45 watts just did not work. In principle, it was expected, so the inverter is left for the future before moving to place with a balcony more.

As a result, considering the solution to abandon buffer batteries, the only working version was the use of DC-DC converters directly: For example, this converter may charge any USB devices, there is already a USB connector at its output:

There are models a little more expensive, they have a greater maximum current and a larger number of USB connectors:

There is a thought also to find a DC-DC converter for charging a laptop, their choice on eBay is very large.

Data collection

In principle, our system is ready. it is enough to connect the panel to the inverter, turn it on into a regular outlet, and everything will work. However, I want to at least see how much power is given from the panels, but as a maximum, have more advanced logging of the resulting energy.

To begin with, we use the power meter, outputting the current readings on the screen.

It can output the basic parameters (power, voltage, current, the sum of kilowatt-hours), but no “network” functions, as well as the ability to save data, it has no.

The amount of kilowatt-hours is useful if it comes to an iron or refrigerator, but for solar panels to actually see the development during the day. The search has shown that the best functionality provides the SMART socket TP-LINK KASA HS110 price of order 25 hours. it can not only show power data, but also under it there is a Python API that allows you to receive current data. It is important not to confuse with the HS100 model, no power measurements in it. By the way, like a bonus, software from TP-Link has its own “cloud”, and to see the generation values ​​can online from anywhere in the world:

Unfortunately, neither one of the “smart sockets” does not have its own LCD screen (I have long known that all marketing and design solutions are accepted by Alienha, which in this case, believe that it is more convenient to take a smartphone and make 10 taps to see power than Just look at the LCD screen). As a result, it turned out such a “train”. the first “non-intelligent” socket shows the generation values ​​on the screen, the second “smart” but without a screen, ensures Connect by Wi-Fi. Honor and praise modern marketers (and it may be so conceived, I spent in the end money for 2 devices instead of one).

However, the built-in logging in the TP-Link application, I had to add it yourself, for this, the HTTPS library was used: // GitHub.COM / PYTHON-KASA / PYTHON-KASA. Of course, this could be automated using Openhab or Home Assistant, but keep a whole server on a dedicated device for what can be made of 20 lines of code, it seemed to be redundant.

When running the program, CSV log files will be created in about a minute and breakdown by month:

I launched a log picking on my router with DD-WRT, for which the team is enough Nohup Python3 / Opt / Solar.PY / DEV / NULL 21 . If you wish, you can add a script to autoload, so as not to enter the command every time when the router is turned on. There was also an idea to add your web server to the program to access the log, but in practice the standard WINSCP it turned out to be quite enough to download a new log.

Is it possible to hope for solar batteries in winter?

Unfortunately, solar panels and collectors will not be able to provide you with sufficient energy in winter. But some systems are surprisingly effectively and in winter.

It is not necessary to hope that solar panels or collectors will provide your need for hot water or heating, but they will help to significantly save you on electricity accounts. So much that your system will pay off in less than 10 years. And if you are not connected to the power grids and use the generator to produce electricity, the photovoltaic system will pay off for a period of several months to 2-3 years, depending on the cost of fuel and the cost of overhaul or replace the fuel generator.

Even taking into account the fact that in the winter on most of Russia the arrival of solar radiation decreases, investments in the solar power system continues to be revented. over, there are regions where the arrival of solar radiation in winter is even greater than summer (for example, the Far East). In any case, solar panels allow you to save on electricity payments all year round.