Modern drugs in the treatment of obesity

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of obesity in the world over the past 40 years has increased almost 3 times. During the same period of time, the frequency of obesity in children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years has increased from 1% to 7%. In the WHO report, it is noted that most of the world’s population lives in those countries, “where excess body weight and obesity kill more people than insufficient body weight“. Obesity is associated with the development of various chronic diseases, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, increasing the risk of disability and death. In the presence of obesity, life expectancy is reduced by an average of 15 years compared with those in people with normal body weight. In addition, obesity and associated diseases significantly increase the costs of the health care system. In the treatment of obesity, it is necessary not only to achieve a loss of body weight, but also to adjust the violations of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, hemostasis systems, etc., What needs to be considered when choosing medicines. The review of the literature discusses the modern possibilities and experience of using drugs to reduce body weight.

The problem of obesity is raised in the writings of the English doctor of Thomas Sidenhema, and in 1808. AT. Capin wrote: “Fat, which is part of the human body, contributes to beauty, but in the bodie is a disease and may be the cause of many fatal effects” [1]. In Xih B. Charles Dickens in the “Notes of the Pickwick Club” describes a severe degree of obesity from his hero, under the influence of which a person becomes sluggish, inhibited and drowy [1].

The development of obesity, which in economically developed countries suffers from about a third of the population, contribute to alcohol, stress, hypodynamia and overeating [2]. The increase in the number of cases is established in developing countries, which are associated with the features of the population, namely the predominance of carbohydrate food. These countries have consumption of products with elevated fat, sugars and salts with high energy density and low M micronutrients. Such nutrition is usually cheaper, but has a lower nutritional value. In combination with a low level of physical activity, this leads to a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity, and the problem of defective nutrition remains unresolved [3,4]. The frequency of obesity increases with age [4,5], but some studies show a high prevalence of obesity among well-to-school children and adolescents, which is due to a seating lifestyle [5]. According to some data, obesity is more often found among residents of cities than rural residents.

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With a Morbid obesity, the frequency of subclinical and clinically significant alarms and depression is reliably higher than in the population: at least one mental disorder is observed more than half of people with a body mass index (BMI) 40 kg / m 2. Most studies are devoted to the study of obesity with depressive disorder [6]. His prevalence during life in the population is about 17%, and in patients with obesity. from 29 to 56% [6]. According to researchers, the growth of the prevalence of certain diseases, including cancer and obesity, is partly due to the fact that people began to live longer, and eat worse [7]. The risk of developing a number of oncological diseases, such cancer colon, kidneys, lungs, breasts and female genital organs, increases with obesity, although the mechanisms of this connection have not been studied. For example, it is believed that with a colon cancer, the predisposing factors are the adamisia and the reception of oily food, and when cancer of the ovaries and the breast. hormonal imbalance [7].

In materials İdf (International Diabetes Federation) 2005. A variation of a number of criteria for metabolic syndrome, including a change in the average waist circle in Europe and Asia, was noted, which averaged 80 cm in women and 94 cm in men. In the US, this indicator reached 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women, in European countries. 94 cm and 80 cm, in South Asia and China. 90 cm and 80 cm, in Japan. 85 cm and 90 cm, respectively. According to the study of TURDEP-II (Turkish Diabetes Epidemiology Study2010), in Turkey, this figure was 91 cm in women and 94 cm in men [8].

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According to WHO, in 2016. 1.9 billion adults aged 18 and older, and obese. 650 million suffered over a mass of body in the world. At the same time, the frequency of excess body mass was 39%, obesity. 13%, including 11% among men and 15% among women. In the same year, the number of children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years old with excess body weight or obesity exceeded 340 million. In 2019. The number of children under 5 years of age with excess body or obesity amounted to 38 million [9].

In 2015. Among the 20 most densely populated countries, the highest standardized frequency of obesity among adults was observed in Egypt (35.3%), and among children. in the United States (12.7%). Adult obesity frequency was the lowest in Vietnam (1.6%), and among children. in Bangladesh (1.2%). In the period from 1980 to 2015. Standardized by age obesity frequency increased by 2 or more than 13 of 20 countries. In 2015. The greatest number of children with obesity was in China and India, and adults in the USA and China [10].

The current situation is otherwise called the epidemic, and in the coming years one can expect only further aggravation. In the adopted World Health Assembly in 2000. “WHO Global Strategy for Nutrition, Physical Activity and Health” The list of necessary measures to support healthy nutrition and regular physical activity are set out. The strategy calls for all interested parties to take action at the global, regional and local levels in order to improve the power and increase in the level of physical activity of the population [11]. In November 2006. WHO conducted a special European conference on obesity issues, on which a number of documents calling for the governments of all countries of the region to deal with this state [12].

Obesity is not only a cosmetic, but also a medical problem [13]. It is associated with a number of diseases, most often with arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovary syndrome, osteoarthritis and obstructive night apnea syndrome. The first clinical guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of obesity was proposed by the National Institute of US Health (NIH) [14]. When examining patients with obesity, it is necessary to evaluate three indicators: body mass index (BMI), waist circle and cardiovascular risk. Criterion of excess body body is the value of CMT 25-29.9 kg / m 2. and obesity. 30 kg / m 2 and above. The leadership emphasizes that patients aged 18 years and older with CMT ≥25 kg / m 2 have a higher risk of developing obesity complications, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, diseases of the respiratory system and osteoarthritis. It also has also been proven that the central type of obesity is an independent risk factor atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. NIH experts proposed to divide patients with overweight in three groups depending on the cardiovascular risk:

Causes of hair loss

Hair growth has cyclic nature and phases that consistently replace each other. In general, three phases related to changes in metabolic processes can be distinguished:

  • Anagen is an active hair growth, which on average takes 5-7 years.
  • Catagen is considered intermediate, it is a pseuding phase that lasts only 1-3 weeks.
  • Telogen. Dropping Day.

The data show that the telogen hair loss is more often diagnosed.

Stress is one of the main causes of intensive hair loss due to the prematurely completed phase of active growth.

According to the observations of trichologists, hair loss begins not immediately after infection, but only after 3-4 months.

It is explained by the fact that the reserves of vitamins and minerals are depleted, and the receipt of new ones is incomplete. Interestingly, the violation of the work of hair bulbs does not depend on the severity of the disease, there are cases of hair loss in patients who suffered the disease asymptomatic.

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Vitamins Group B

Replacing white loaf and dry breakfasts on whole grain loaf, millet and oatmeal increase consumption of several main nutrients. Whole grades are rich in vitamin E (powerful antioxidant), vitamin B and indispensable fats [3].

Millet or millet (grains of this cereal) is familiar to all. But do you know that this is a modest plant possesses healing hair properties? From a long time, it was not only an important food, but also source of health and beauty.

Moskos grain contain a unique complex of substances that are necessary for tissues and human organs: indispensable amino acids, vitamins, macro- and microelements, which actively affect both hair follicles and hair along the entire length.

  • Unsaturated fatty acids, first of all, linoleic, is necessary for cell division. This is a powerful antioxidant affecting the life cycle of the hair and protecting it from aging.
  • Silicon. It serves as important material for all solid tissues of the body. including hair and nails, builds and regenerates their structure.
  • Phosphorus. the basis of proteins synthesized by the organism, including keratin from which hair consists. He needs the hair to become stronger and stronger, looked thick.
  • Potassium. regulates the work of capillary blood vessels of the head, strengthens their walls.
  • Iron. included in the blood hemoglobin formula. responsible for the transfer of oxygen over capillaries that feed the hair roots.
  • Zinc. polyfunctional “Vitamin Beauty” for hair and leather.
  • Copper, Potassium, Magnesium, Manganese, Fluoron. are necessary for metabolic processes in the body, fabric breathing follicle, cell dividing in the hair rod.
  • Vitamins A and E. “Conductors” of the organism. Including regulate the production of sebum (sebum). They are responsible for the preservation of moisture in her hair, give them elasticity, shine and healthy appearance [5].
  • Vitamins of group B: B1 (thiamine), B3 (nicotinamide), B5 (panthenol), B9 (folic acid). They affect the fact that the follicles be wanted on time, entered into the phase of active growth (Anagen) and did not rush to interrupt it, these vitamins contribute to growth and reduce hair loss.

Millet helps to improve the nutrition of the follicle and protect them from harmful effects, stimulate hair growth, strengthen the rod of the growing hair, reduce excess fatness and dryness of the scalp.

How to restore the body after amphetamine

Prolonged use of the psychostimulator is accompanied by:

  • common exhaustion;
  • deficiency of vitamins and other nutrients due to disorders of the digestive function;
  • dry, itching, rapid skin aging, appearance of ulcerations;
  • reduced immune defense;
  • violations of the hormonal background, impotence in men, amenorrhea in women, a decrease in sexual entry;
  • chronic hypertension, arrhythmia and other cardiovascular disorders;
  • deterioration of intelligence, general degradation of personality.

Restore the body after long-term amphetamine intoxication is very difficult. careful diagnosis and individual selection of drug treatment are needed. Apply:

  • cardioprotectors;
  • sedative, group vitamins in;
  • antioxidants;
  • drugs for the normalization of digestion;
  • nootropics to restore cognitive function;
  • hepatoprotectors;
  • Means for recovery of metabolic processes and others.

But it is not enough to restore only the physiological functions of the body. the patient needs a comprehensive prolonged psychological rehabilitation. Narcologists strongly recommend group psychotherapy sessions according to the method of 12 steps or deitop in a special rehabilitation center.

It is possible to restore the emotional state of a person after amphetamine in several stages:

  • Elimination of all factors. which can provoke recurrence;
  • Gradual socialization dependent. training of self-control methods and confrontation by the desire to accept drugs;
  • Long psychological support for recurrence prevention.

The last stage can last many years. Regular visits to the psychotherapist will help not only restore emotional balance. Specialist teaches a patient to cope with difficult life situations, conflicts, normalize relationships with friends, family members. Only an integrated approach can return dependent on the full life.

Literature:

The text is tested by experts: head of the socio-psychological service MC “Alcoclinic” by a psychiatrist-narcologist of the serum.BUT.

Consult with a specialist

Features of the female and male fat deposition

It is known that the female body, as a rule, contains more fat than men’s. on average by 10%, but men tend to have a higher percentage of visceral fat.

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This difference in the distribution of fat is mainly due to our hormones.

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And it has already been proven that the presence of visceral fat is a dangerous state. This is due to the fact that it puts pressure on the authorities, which, in turn, can lead to health problems.

Stuffing box. This scientific name is given to a fat apron who protects internal organs. This large fat layer covers the intestines, liver and stomach, protecting them from the shake, and even plays a role in immunity due to small filters between fat cells, which are sorbitated antigens and bacteria.

However, when too much of this fat accumulates, it can cause a number of cardiometabolic problems, such as: insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in the whole body, and not only in the abdominal cavity.

Many men have an obvious aesthetic need to get rid of “extra” fat, especially in the abdomen. And if you are going to reduce fat deposits, you need to do this in a healthy way, considering three factors: lifestyle, food and exercises.

Sensations during the mission

The procedure is contactless and passes absolutely painless. During the session there are no sensations. During the apparatus, you can observe laser rays in the form of rotating strips. Session lasts 40 minutes, at this time you can read the book, listen to music. And after the procedure immediately return to the planned affairs.

For a steady effect, a course of procedures is required. The number and frequency of procedures determines the doctor and depends on the individual characteristics of the patient. Sessions can be appointed both daily and with an interval in a few days.

The basic hardware correction program of the figure includes 6 procedures, the minimum amount. 3, optimal. 10-20 sessions.

When you need to start using anti-aging?

Daily skin care at home largely depends on age. But the question arises. when to start applying anti-aging cosmetics? Take care of the youth and beauty of the skin from early years. The first “bell” to the use of anti-age cosmetics. the appearance of chances and loss of elasticity.

Often the processes of aging are launched in 25 years. This does not mean that the skin will lose fresh look and covers wrinkles. Aging is a gradual long process and depends on the individual characteristics of the body. But the aging processes are easier to delay than fighting deep age-related changes.

Terms of daily skin care for each individual. Universal digit to start using anti-aging care. Daily skin care after 25 should be based on the recommendations of the cosmetologist. The main councils of the cosmetologist for skin care after 35 years are the use of funds aimed at moisturizing, protection against ultraviolet and maintenance of tone.

If you prematurely use the creams against aging because of the fear of “pretty ahead of time”, then these procedures will be useless. Anti-aging cosmetics works where her work is necessary. If the skin is young, the Anti-Age cream will feed and moisturize the skin, but will not perform their direct functions. Anti-aging cosmetics should be applied according to the testimony and always timely.

Daily face care after 35 should not be chosen independently. Cosmetologist prescribes funds that are optimally suitable for your age and skin condition.

Okhrachuk Elizabeth Dmitrievna

With honors he graduated from therapeutic faculty of the Kirov Medical Academy, then the clinical residency at the Department of Neurology and Clinical Internship at the Department of Dermatovenorology of the Krasnodar State Medical University. Professional retraining under the Cosmetology program.