Solar power station do it yourself
For self-designing an autonomous system, we need knowledge of the foundations of electrical engineering and certain knowledge in mathematics. For the assembly of the simplest solar power plant, 4 components will be required:
In addition to the above components, a copper cable will be required, connectors, protection devices and something small. Further we will explain step by step, how can I choose components for your needs.
The solar battery device is based on the phenomenon of the photo effect, open in the twentieth century A.Enstein. It turned out that in some substances under the action of sunlight or other substances, a separation of charged particles occurs. This discovery has led in 1953 to the creation of the first helium.
Material for the manufacture of elements serve semiconductors. combined plates of two materials with different conductivity. Most often, polycrystalline or single crystal silicon with various additives are used for their manufacture.
Under the action of sunlight in one layer, an excess of electrons appears, and in the other. their deficiency. “Excess” electrons go to the area with their disadvantage, this process was called P-N Transition.
The solar element consists of two semiconductor layers with different conductivity
Between materials forming the excess and disadvantage of electrons, a barrier layer is placed, which prevents the transition. This is necessary in order for the current to occur only in the presence of an energy consumption source.
Fitting on the surface photons of light knocked out electrons and supply them necessary energy to overcome the barrier layer. Negative electrons go from a P conductor to a N-conductor, and positive make the return path.
Due to the different conductivity of the semiconductor materials, it is possible to create a directional electron direction. Thus, electric current occurs.
The elements are consistently interconnected by forming a larger or less panel, which is called the battery. Such batteries can be directly connected to the source of consumption. But since solar activity changes during the day, and at night it stops at all, batteries, accumulating energy during the absence of sunlight.
The required component in this case is the controller. It serves to control the charging of the battery and turns off the battery with full charge.
The current generated by the Solar Battery is constant, it must be converted to an alternating. For this serves an inverter.
Since all electric devices that consume energy are designed for a specific voltage, the system requires a stabilizer providing the desired values.
An additional appliances are installed between the heliumodule and the consumer
Only in the presence of all these components it is possible to obtain a functional system that provides consumers and not threatened to bring them out of order.
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And so experiment
I had to cut the microUSB cable Nokia:
Received microusb on the one hand, and 4 wires on the other:
The solar battery needs to be combined with a red wire with red (plus with a plus), and the second Wire of the Solar Battery (I have blue) with a sign (-) with a black wire. Also in order to charge you need to close the white and green wire. Wiring diagram:
Received this sample for experiments:
It turned out that the phone is charged from her, lying on my office desk in sunny weather for 2 working days, and in the cloud. for 3 working days. I work from 8 am to 5 pm. Office windows overlook the East. Experiment I consider successful. It remains only to solder everything under the case directly to the microUSB connector and place in the lid from the battery compartment. Some additions in the form of diodes and other radio components are not required, since the self-discharge when connected to the microUSB there is no phone connector, and the phone is charged naturally. The charging process is displayed on the phone screen. It’s amazing how easy it turns out.
To help lay a picture of the microusb pinout drawing:
I ordered a more powerful solar panel on the Ebey. I also plan to connect it through the SS14 diode (costs 5) directly to the battery contacts without soldering, just holding the contacts. Later I’ll post the connection scheme. Panel wait for 3 weeks. She is 2 times more efficient and worth 100 rubles. I decided to do this due to the constant appearance of an annoying message about connecting and disconnecting charging.
Solar battery from diodes with their own hands
Make a real solar battery at home almost impossible. For it, not only factory specialized equipment is needed, but special chemicals that you just do not find.But if you suddenly will be very impressed, you can build a low-power solar battery from diodes.
I will build a solar panel that will give two volts of voltage and current of the floor of the ampere. By connecting such a solar battery to an increase in the converter, with a bright sun, it is quite realistic to charge a cell phone. To do this, you need 100 silicon diodes in a glass case. I had a hundred diodes at hand.I took packing with diodes.
EASIEST Off Grid Solar Power System Battery Bank
Next, the super glue glued these “rails” to a wooden substrate.[CENT [H3] [/ H3] ER] [/ CENTER] Removal covering, pre-cut, thin plexiglass. And fasten the self-drawing.
Homemade Solar Battery With Your Hands. Step-by-step instructions
The sequence of actions when creating the module is the following.
In order for the panel to work as a whole, on all silicon elements it is necessary to evaporate contacts:
- For each photoelectric plate prepare two metal conductor. They are cut from the stripes using a pattern of cardboard, the length of which is about twice as much as the cell size.
- Pre-site soldering is processed with acid in order to degrease.
- The soldering must be carried out extremely carefully and neatly due to the fragility of thin semiconductor plates.
- It is advisable to use the solder already with the rosin, placed inside the hollow tube.
Homemade solar battery is placed in a rectangular frame of wooden plates or aluminum profiles.
- The height of future sides should be from 7 to 9 cm.
- All four elements are bonded by self-drawing.
- Corners should be equal to 90 degrees.
- A sealant is applied to the inner part of the frame with a uniform layer. especially carefully in the corner area.
It is performed from a flat plate. usually a chipboard.
- Along the edges around the perimeter, the rails are attached with a height of about 2 cm. the future “Future”.
- Each 10 cm in the stove drills rows of ventilation holes.
- The size of the base is selected so that the frame has accurately lay exactly in the resulting box.
- A transparent sheet of glass or polymer is invested.
- Fix it with hardware. 4 in the corners, 2 on the long sides and 1 on short.
- Krepim Hermatization Samoresamas.
5.Assembly and checking module for performance.
The homemade solar battery with your own hands at the final stage is formed as follows:
- The transparent base is placed in a pencil in the form of a “grid” under the place of laying of elements, it is thoroughly wiping and degreases with alcohol.
- On the prepared base strictly on the markup, elements with soldered contacts of the working (blue or black) side down. The approximate distance between the cells from all sides should be 3 mm.
- We start to connect cells. For this very gently solder together right, negative contact of one plate with left, positive.
- Work is performed from left to right, rows from top to bottom.
- When all the elements are connected together, the center of each we apply a bit of sealant.
- I turn over the first row of the workpiece and extremely gently press to the base on the markup.
- Extreme elements solder on the tire. a wide silver strip. “Plus” to “minus”.
- We test the chain for performance with an ammeter. Testing under the bright sun in the middle of the day, when the working surfaces are placed perpendicular to the direction of sunlight. Such an optimal position must match the current of about 5-10 amps. In factory modules, this indicator is 15-20% higher.
- We repeat the operation of the connection and checking with the following rows.
- We attach a blocking diode to an almost finished panel, which guarantees the avoidance of the spontaneous discharge of the AKB when the module is inoperative in the dark.
- In the bottom we do hole holes. In order to avoid saving them to silicone sealant.
Final sealing of a homemade solar battery collected by their own hands.
It is carried out no earlier than the assembled module is fully checked for performance.
Recommended more reliable complete sealing epoxy compound.
- From the bottom between the base and rows of cells foam.
- Sealant is applied to the top of the working elements.
- A transparent protective sheet of polymer or plexiglass is neat and tightly pressed.
- On top of the protection temporarily put the cargo, the task of which is to completely squeeze out of the sealant of air bubbles from the sealant.
- The last stage is the re-test of the performance and voltample characteristics of the panel.
If check.It went fine, the module is fully ready for use. It remains only to purchase and install peripheral equipment (inverter, controller, battery), connect everything into a single chain, conduct a commissioning and can be launched a solar power station collected yourself.
Important! Remember that even the perfectly assembled self-made battery will be less reliable, productive and durable than the factory version of the same items.
What gives the solar power station?
This kit can give up to 5 kW power offline. exactly such power I chose a single-phase inverter. If you buy the same inverter and the module of conjugation to it, then you can increase power up to 5kvt5kW = 10 kW per phase. Or you can make a three-phase system, but I am still pleased with this. The inverter is high frequency, and therefore quite light (about 15 kg) and takes a little space. it is easy to mounted on the wall. It has already built in 2 MPPT controller with a capacity of 2.5 kW each, that is, I can add as many panels without buying additional equipment.
I have 2520 W in the signboard for 2520 W, but because of the non-neople angle of installation, they give less. the maximum I have seen 2400 W. The optimal angle is perpendicular to the Sun, which in our latitudes is approximately 45 degrees to the horizon. I have a panel installed under 30 degrees.
The assembly of the battery is 100 and 48V, that is, 4.8 kWh are styled, but it is completely extremely extremely used to take energy, because then their resource is noticeably reduced. It is advisable to discharge such AKB no more than 50%. This lithium iron phosphate or lithium-titanate can be charged and discharge deep and high currents, and lead-acid, whether liquid, gel or AGM is better not to rape. So, I have half a capacity, and this is 2.4 kWh, that is, about 8 hours in fully offline mode without the sun. This is enough for the night of the work of all systems and still will remain half the capacity of the battery for emergency mode. In the morning the sun will arrive and starts to charge the battery, in parallel, providing the house of energy. That is, the house can function and autonomously in this mode, if we reduce power consumption and weather will be good. For complete autonomy, you could add more batteries and generator. After all, in the winter of the sun quite a little and without the generator will not do.
Solar “Power Station” on the loggia in St. Petersburg. C.5
I completely forgot what promised to give a layout at the cost of the solar “power station” so before the story about my “traits” of solar electricity will make a digression on this topic.
It makes sense to call the value in which I did not see much I do not see, because she was going and upgraded for 5 years. The same panel controller changed 3 times. The manufacture of homemade panels is also pretty decently increased its value.
Yes Yes. Independent manufacture This is nifiga not saving, it is possible that 5 years ago it also made sense, but now he is lost. The cost of decent pieces of film (or liquid capsules), glass, aluminum frame and box (not everyone will suit my inapproprous option). Then testing cells before assembling in the chain and burning with the fill or triplex. All this makes sense to do only from the desire to take hands or make something that is not possible to buy ready. How it happened in my case. Factory panels in the enabarite 11090cm as it was not and no.
Sunsons. Calculated 5000r for 100W panel, you can find both cheaper as more expensive, it may depend on both the manufacturer (and accordingly potentially quality) and the greed of the seller. How it is usually a “wholesale cheaper” and 300W panel can be bought even on Avito for 14000r, I think if you joke and for 13 tyshsh. At the same time, there are panels that can be used not only for direct purpose, but also as an element of decor, for example, the production of Seraphim and as a result will be more expensive.
Thus, 600W Sunsons (this is the nominal of my assembly) costs 28-30 thousand.
controller. If the station is assembled not for balobiness as I need to take something more decent, for example, such https: // RU.Aliexpress.com / Item / Tracer-Solar-Charge-Controlle. and install the 24V panel system that is if it is 100W panels then 2 panels and 3 chains parallel. 300W panels and so high-voltage they are set in parallel.
The inverter is necessary if we want to feed the usual household equipment designed for 220V change. Here is the most interesting moment. from the required power depends highly dependent. For example, a model on 1kW is worth it for example 8500r, and a model for 2kvt is already 12 thousand. These are absolutely conditional since it depends on the manufacturer where more than that of the sun. I brought of sinus Chinese. Russian manufacturers are often decently more expensive, European Cosmos.
There is one point. In principle, there is always a desire to save on the inverter and buy not a sine unit, but with approximation. But unfortunately there is some of the techniques that are not entirely correct from such inverters (mainly it concerns motors). On YouTube there are videos where everything is demonstrated. In general, I do not advise try to save on the inverter. For example, on my first Alca inverter 150W with approximation does not want to run BP from a laptop. I am now using it for the portable 220V solder 🙂 Although if there are alone LED bulbs in consumers, then why not ?
Another time to select the power of the inverter. Do not take in tension, any devices working at the limit of their capabilities do not live for a long time (efficiency usually begins to suffer). Yes, and with the launch of something with a motor that does not have a smooth start function may be. For example, refrigerators are launched far from any inverter on 800W although there are really fewer consumption. launchers so that they were not okay. Therefore, for the work of the refrigerator, I would not recommend the model weaker than 1000W.
So the inverter will say to the year 2000W so that it is for sure and for the refrigerator and on the stubborn pump and for any power tool. 12 thousand.
The most difficult. Batteries. There is a trumpet. Some chemistry used in the autonomy at least three. The widest family of lead (I think I will not be mistaken if I say that about 2 dozen constructs). Followed by pitch batteries (there is also a subfamily). Well, the youngest and wretched lithium (3 main types of chemistry).
It is difficult for something to unequivocally advise, each of the chemistry has both its advantages and cons. Therefore, we will dwell on the lead as the most common and understandable for the majority and at the same time we will calculate the cheapest variety. Star book. Yes, this is the least living for this application. Batteries, but there are everywhere and relative to the cheap 🙂 But if you can make your attention due to them, they can work for a long time.
Let’s say Tyumen 6st-190L is the battery for 190Ah with an average price of 11-12 thousand per piece. It has the theoretical energy intensity of 12V190Ah = 2280Wh. Why theoretical, because starters are intended completely for each other and categorically do not like deep discharges. People say that 80-100 deep cycles can kill the starter. And in order to extend his life better than half of it not to discharge it (in the future I will write about the leaders more information that may help extend their vitality). Thus, the starter book for 190 And so as not to force it so much in vain can give conditionally 1100VTC. But it will give it to 12V, and we will get 220V at best, taking into account the efficiency of 90% 11000.9 = 990Wh.
This energy efficiency is enough for example on the edak 6 times to boil the kettle for 1.7 liters (1,8kw power, it boils for 5 minutes and spends 150 bills on it). Or hours 20 combustion of LED light bulbs on 50s.
But here there is a nuance. This is again in theory, so the light bulbs will work perfectly for 20 hours, but the kettle is estimated 6 times will not boast. And the point here is especially lead batteries. They do not like a quick discharge. All figures of their Enecohtems declared producers are mainly normalized at 20 hours discharge, some models at 10h. Starterians Surely at 20h. Thus, if it is discharged by LEDs in 20 hours, it will give a nominal value, and if you try to boil the water with a 3.8kW kettle, then it will give a 70% of the nominal.
Based on all these knowledge and calculate the required capacity of batteries, but we will stop at a couple of 6st-190 worth 24 thousand.
Wires and other little things to throw it out so as not to complicate the calculation and at the exit we have 308,51224 = 74.5 thousand.
This system will be able to give a load without a special risk for the batteries ~ 2,2kVCTC (and in an emergency and all 4 kWh) and at the same time in a streamline of a sunny day at a competent arrangement of the SunsPores to the mountain of more than 4 kWh. That is, in the afternoon we feed the load on 2 kWh, and in the evening we have full batteries and for the dark time there is still the order of 2 kWh in batteries.