What depends the length of the stitch in the sewing machine

The shuttle of a modern household sewing machine with sewing makes or oscillatory movement, or spinning in horizontal or in a vertical plane. Accordingly, the shunks are called “swinging”, “horizontal spinning” and “vertical twisting dual circuit”. Swinging shuttle is the most common. He is familiar to many, for example, according to Russian sewing machines “Seagull”. Such a shuttle is applied by all manufacturers in cheap electromechanical machines. The shortcomings of the shuttle such type are the overestimated vibration when working, low sewing speed, length limit and stitch width (less than 5 mm) and not the highest quality string.

Horizontal shuttle This is a frequently common type of shuttle in cars price from 250. This shuttle is more comfortable for refueling bobbins. The bobbin of such a shuttle is visible through the transparent window on the needle plate. It is comfortable, as it allows you to simply assess the number of the remaining threads on the bobbin. Machines are less versed with such a shuttle, as the shuttle is spinning, and not swinging. It should be noted that in the machines with a horizontal shuttle, the lower thread is confusing significantly. Horizontal shuttle does not ask for lubricants. To the shortcomings of such a shuttle include not a comfortable adjustment of the tension of the lower thread. in order to get to the adjusting screw, it is necessary to remove the needle plate, while in some cases the adjusting screw is sealed by the manufacturer.

Vertical Double Outline Shuttle is used in the design of expensive sewing machines PFAFF. Clauses of similar design are used in industrial sewing machines. The main advantage is the highest reliability. Machines equipped with such a shine are also less vibrated by comparison with cheap structures and also reduced the ability to confuse lower thread. The principal advantage of this design in front of the horizontal shuttle is the convenience of adjusting the tension of the lower thread. But, the vertical shuttle asks constant lubrication.

The size of the gap under the paw

The size of the gap under the paw in its raised position indirectly shows how the thick cloth can be sewed on the sewing machine.

Sewing machine’s paw can be raised so that the gap under his paw will increase. It is very comfortable if you need to snap a thick “pie”, for example, from a pair of layers of fingent, heat insulator and lining. This function is referred to as the “double lift of the foot”.

Standard needles

All household sewing machines of the shuttle stitch have been equipped with Etalone needles 130/705 H. Most of the cheap household overlocks use the needles of the HAX1SP standal, and more expensive models. ELX705 standal needles. But there are overlocks using needles 130/705 H. Overlock needles differ from the needles for sewing machines of the shuttle stitch in an increased size of the Ear and not interchangeable. The best needles are needles of the German company Schmetz. Excellent needles also produced Organ Needles.

Sewing machine lines

The number of lines of the modern machine varies from about 10 in junior models, up to several hundred in complex computerized machines. Sewing machine strings It is customized to divide on workers and decorative:

The working lines include, besides the classic straight line and zigzag, also loops, hatching lines, strings for crosslinking and processing elastic fabrics, strings for invisible feeding feeds, rows for eats and some others. Decorative strings

Assortment of decorative lines for mechanical machines is limited. Perhaps the largest set of lines in the middle of the machines of this class can be met by PFAFF SELECT 1546. But, by virtue of constructive restrictions, the decorative lines of mechanical machines are not very fascinating and when choosing an electromechanical machine, perhaps, it is not necessary to emphasize the number of lines.

All computer control machines can do various decorative lines. These are different ornaments, festened chambers, rows made by smooth blast, elements of the simplest embroidery. rows with cross, mere race, openwork lines, and t.D. Complex models in memory stores one or several alphabets. Some models (for example, Husqvarna Platinum 770) have in their own arsenal not only Latin, and Russian alphabets, also hieroglyphs.

Usually, any row of a computerized machine can be modified by changing the length and width of the stitch. Many machines have a function of a mirror image horizontally and vertical, also turning the string.

So sew it is impossible! Decreased the length of the stitch, badly promotes the fabric or sews in place? Dad Shvent

Some computerized machines have a memory to which certain compositions of letters can be made (for example, the names of family members) or a sequence of decorative parts to embroider any curb.

The number of lines of overlock is depending on what the car can be armed with. You can read in detail about incisional lines in the article “How to choose Overlock”


In the general case, the higher the engine power of the sewing machine, the more thick tissues can be comfortable to work. However, each rule has exceptions. Machine with a lower power engine may well have a puncture force superior more powerful models due to a lower maximum sewing rate, for example, or by the presence of an electronic unit that allows you to more rationally dispose of power. Normal For Machine Consumption Power. 60-90 W By the way, the power consumption is spent not only by the engine and electronics, but also the backlight lamp. Most electromechanical machines are equipped with conventional 15 W illumination lamps. In modern models, halogen lamps or less power LEDs are often used, but larger brightness.

Automatic stop when winding bobbins

Most cars are equipped with an automatic stop function at the time when the bobbin wounds completely. This is one of the most unnecessary features.

Stitches and stitches

In the manufacture of clothes, various stitches and lines are used.

Stitch Called repeating on the fabric finished cycle of weaving thread. A series of stitches repeated on fabric forms line.

According to the stitch method, the stitch distinguishes manual and machinery.

Manual stitches divided into simple and complex. Consider the varieties of manual stitches.

Simple stitches include replenishment, ropes, stalking, firmware, copying, rapid stitches.

Merit stitches (rice. 1, a) widely used in the production of outerwear for temporary fastening parts (before iron, before performing a constant lines), as well as for the formation of assemblies when processing linen products, dresses and female blouses. In addition, with the help of resin stitches, various works are performed: desiccation of side or shoulder sections of the product, winting of the shelves on onboard pads and others.

The length of the resin stitches (cm) in the line depends on the type of fabric and destination line:

When descending parts with landing one. 2
The same, without landing 2. 3
When wunting parts with landing 1.5. 3
The same, without landing 3. 5
The same, landing and subsequent formation of Kant around the edge 0,7. 1.5
When filming details 1.5. 3

Mixed stitches in the line can be straight or oblique.

When processing products made of cotton and woolen fabrics, rented stitches are performed by threads 0 or high-numbered yarn; When processing products from silk and thin cotton fabrics. Threads 0. 80. Racking stitches (rice. 1, b, c) perform on the edge of parts cuts to protect the edge of the fabric from sprinkling threads in the seams, not closed lining. Stitches Length in 0.5. 0.7 cm depending on the tissue density. Fabric capture width when performing a taking stitch 0.5 cm. Recovery stitches are performed by threads 0. 80. In the mass production of clothing and in a specialized studio, revision stitches are performed on special machines 51-A CL. PMZ and 208 CL. RLM.

Stretches (rice. 1, d) used for constant bonding of two parts for the purpose of their seal, imparting elasticity and a certain position of the part (lapel stitch, lower collar). When performing stegal stitches, the upper fabric is pierced through, and the bottom is captured half of its thickness. As a result, the front part of the stitches are not noticeable. Stitches Length in 0.5. 0.7 cm, distance between lines 0.4. 0.5 cm depending on the thickness of the fabric and destination line. Stretches are performed by threads 0. 80 Under the color of the main fabric of the product.

With mass production of clothing and in specialized studio, stelest stitches are performed on SM-2 special machines, 761 CL. firms Panconium VDD and DR.

Cheerful stitches distinguish: oblique, secret and crucible.

Kosy stitches (rice. 1, e) are used in the manufacture of clothing from non-switching tissues to attach the adjacent edge to the main part (laminated niza trouser, the edges of the collar and T. P.). When performing slanting stitches, the needle is introduced into the fabric near the cutting edge slice, half the thickness of the basic product of the product is captured and removed the needle to the bezed edge at a distance of 0.2. 0.4 cm from cut.

Second stitches (rice. 1, e) are used in the processing of products from silk and thin woolen fabrics to attach the adjacent edge of the parts to the main fabric of the product (laminating nimes of sleeves in dresses and t. P.). Secret stitches in their design are almost the same as the hevat-bone stitches; They differ only to the use and peculiar location of parts when performing a line, T. E. The secret line is performed when the adjacent edge is positioned to the operating or from the working.

Cross-shaped stitches (rice. 1, g) used in the processing of clothing from thick, easily saving tissues to attach the adjacent edge of parts with an open section to the main fabric of the product (the resulting collar at the ends and departure, lining in women’s coat and t. P.).

Cross-shaped stitches are paving from left to right, and the needles punctures perform right to left with alternating them along the adjacent edge and the main fabric. Bottom and upper punctures should be placed one against the other. On the front side of parts, the line should be inconspicuous, so when performing stitches it is necessary to capture half the thickness of the main fabric. Storks Length Oh, 5. 0.7 cm. A line of cruciform hearing stitches are performed by silk or cotton threads.

Copiers stitches (slices; rice. 1, h) are an uncomfortable residue stitches. The line with copy stitches are paved according to advanced lines that need to be accurately translated from one piece to another. After performing such a line, the parts folded with the front side inside, push the stitches. The line (stitches) in the middle between the details are cut, the ends of the threads (silkers) remain in the tissue of the tissue (slices) create contours of translated lines. Stitches Frequency 4. 5 per 5 cm lines, length of non-stitches 0.5. 0.7 cm.

In the mass production of clothing, copy stitches do not apply. They are replaced with chalk lines or ladders that are applied by auxiliary patterns. In specialized studio Silki performs 622 CL cars. PMZ or on a universal sewing machine specially adapted for this purpose.

Starty stitches (rice. 1, and) apply for fastening parts or to perform a lines of increased extensibility. According to the appearance of the line from the rack stitches from the front side resembles a machine line. When forming a rack stitch thread, passing through the thickness of the tissue, returns back and passes through the fabric at the point of the previous puncture. In this case, the length of the stitches of the bottom side of the line is two times the length of the stitches of the front side. This distinguishes this stitch from others and ensures the strength of the stitching to stretching and non-reliability when breaking the thread.

Stitch length in the sewing machine depends on

This article is primarily focused on people who are engaged (or planning to do) sewing at the amateur level, which decided on:

  • Acquisition of the first sewing machine due to its absence,
  • Replace the old sewing machine with manual drive,
  • Replace the old sewing machine with electric drive.

Currently, in specialized stores there are a huge variety of modern sewing machines, with a more careful examination of which the head begins. So important: brand, prices, functionality and other nuances? Each sewing machine has functions, strengths and weaknesses that can have a different level of priority for you. Let’s try to consider the main features of the sewing machines, for which (in my opinion) it is necessary to pay attention to the purchase:

The price category of the sewing machine depends, of course, from the possibilities of the buyer. But if you do not plan to sew more than yourself and on your family, there is no point in buying expensive production models.


About the brand can tell more detail people who directly worked with sewing machines of a particular mark, impose something in this article on my part will be quite incompetent, since my experience is limited to 2 brands: Podolsk and name is hidden in order to avoid advertising =).

Number of lines, number of loops.

If you are seriously engaged in embroidery, decorative design of details of clothes (and not only clothes) in the form of a kayma of flowers, beaks, diamonds, then the point of buying a sewing machine with a lot of lines is simply not available. In fact (based not only on my experience) will be used 3-5, maximum 6-8 lines: straight, zigzag, elastic lines, imitation of overlock lines and something else as needed. Imitation of overlock lines, of course, does not compare with real overlock, but nevertheless, it often helps in the absence of the specified apparatus.

The weight of the sewing machine usually varies in the range from 5 to 12 kg. What it is easier, the easier it is to transport it if necessary. In fact, the machine should not be easy, and how it is harder, the more metal parts in it, and the more technically more reliable and more stable when sewing at high speed. The lightest machine is more likely to jump over the surface. In my opinion, the optimal weight begins from 8 kg. It is important to take into account the weight in the ratio with the gabarites of the sewing machine.

Type of shuttle. Type of shuttle device in the sewing machine.

Currently, there are three types of shuttles: “swinging”, “horizontal” and “vertical dual circuit”.

  • The simplest of them is considered “swinging vertical shuttle” (classic). He performs oscillatory movements. In machines with this location of the shuttle, the bobbin is inserted into the metal case, then the shuttle with a bobbin is inserted into the car.
  • “Horizontal” Shuttle. the most common type of shuttle in machines. It is easy enough to use. The bobbin is inserted directly into the machine case. In addition, there is a transparent window on the needle plate, through which you can see how many threads remain on the bobble. The shuttle of this type is also good because it reduces vibration, and, accordingly, noise. to a minimum. Horizontal shuttle does not require lubrication. Such a device also warns the confusion and breakdown of the lower thread.
  • “The vertical shuttle of the double entrance (rotary)” is used in the designs of cars related to the category of expensive and is considered more reliable. Rotary shuttle easily copes with high loads and has the highest sewing speed. Stitch skip is unlikely, refilling threads comfortable and simple.

In fact, the unprofessional choice is only between swinging and horizontal shutouts. This feature of the sewing machine is chosen by its preferences, but my choice is a horizontal shuttle.

Sealy speed adjustment

The ability to regulate the maximum sewing speed is a very convenient feature, especially for beginners. I discovered on my surprise that you can still find sewing machines without the possibility of adjusting the sewing speed. I advise them to avoid them.

There are four main types of sewing machines: mechanical, electromechanical, electronic and computer. The cost increases in about the same order

  • Mechanical machines work from the mechanical effort of the user (manual or foot drive).
  • Electromechanicals have an electric motor. an electric motor that leads in motion. The speed of work depends on the degree of pressing on the foot pedal. Function management is made by switches on the machine housing.
  • Electronic sewing machines have an electric drive and an electronic control panel. Built-in microprocessor controls the movement of the needle relative to the fabric. Using the sewing machine panel, you can choose the necessary operation.
  • Computer machines can be connected to a computer. It is possible to download new embroidery schemes and stitch types, as well as program sewing operations.

Loops for buttons.

It is very desirable that the sewing machine “knew how to get down the loops for buttons in automatic mode (loop automatic). If this mode has a sewing machine, almost without your help will perform all the main work. The semi-automatic loop implies that the user itself alternately switches the necessary operations (lower, left, upper and right loop edges), that is, they are executed step by step (found mainly in more budget models). Manual option involves complete control over the process and requires accuracy in performing the specified operation. Thus, the loop-machine saves time, allows you to make almost perfect identical loops, takes place nerves, smoothes wrinkles and allows you to lose weight: D.

Sewing feet.

Usually in the set of sewing machine already there is a major set of paws, which includes including: an overlocked leg, a paw for swelling loops, a paw for secret lightning, etc. In any case, the package of foot should not be among the priority characteristics when selecting a sewing machine. All other necessary legs can be purchased in specialized stores. Pleasure is, of course, not cheap, but for the budget option there are Aliexpress. Having experience gaining a set of 50 paws on the specified site, I can say that part of the paws are categorically not suitable (depends on the car brand). But despite this, most paws still come to my sewing machine, including after processing with appliances from the tool store. By the cost set of 50 paws from Aliexpress cost me how 4-5 paws would cost from our specialized stores. But buying paws with Aliexpress, you must remember that you act at your own risk.

In the sewing machine, the most time-consuming and painstaking works in the process of sewing clothes are performed, first of all. various seams and a number of other sewing operations.

The main parts of the sewing machine and their purpose

Sewing machine device is shown in rice. All the details of it in the nature of the work performed can be combined into the following groups:

stitch, length, sewing, machine, depends
  • Working parts (needle nameor, pitch truck, conveyor, shuttlecock kit);
  • Auxiliary devices and parts (stitch length regulator, thread tension regulator, foot, comb, and t. P.);
  • Transmission details (shaft, crank, connecting rod and t. P.).

Screw for fastening the foot: 2. rod for coil with threads; 3. flywheel; 4. stitches regulator.

The most important parts of the sewing machine are the needleidel, a patery, conveyor and shuttle.

The needle must ensure the correct promotion of the needles attached to it up and down through the flavored fabric. The rod of the needle product receives a movement from a crank fortified at the end of the main shaft. From the same cropper gets a movement and a pyatrier, which in its work should be associated with the work of the needle and shuttle. The high quality of the sewing machine works depends on the properly established work.

The conveyor is designed to move the fabric for the length of one stitch. The length of the stitch, correctness and uniformity of the stitch depend on its work.

From the work of the shuttle mechanism depends on the loop formation, t. E. Crossing the upper and lower threads.

The sewing machine must be carefully cleaned, systematically lubricate and check the status of its individual parts. From time to time it is necessary to check whether the screws fastening individual parts are sufficient, since these screws are weakened with these screws and thereby disrupt the normal course of the entire machine, cause premature wear of its parts.

Dirt and dust, falling into the car, also contribute to the quick wear of its details. Therefore, it is necessary to closely keep up the dirt and dust fall into the car, for which after work it should be closed with a cap or a tight cover. To reduce friction and thereby avoid premature wear, the car must be lubricated in a timely manner.

If the machine works daily, all its parts should be lubricated at least once every two days. Before this it needs to be thoroughly wipe, inspect and clean all the holes for lubrication, since otherwise the oil may not get between driving items.

For lubrication, it is necessary to use special machine oil and an oilbox, which should always be untrue. When you click on the bottomsheko oil, the oil must be highlighted with droplets, not a trickle.

Machine oil designed to lubricate the sewing machine must be benign, clean and colorless.

It is also necessary to follow the cleanliness of the oilbox so that during the lubricant do not put into the dirt car.

Getting Started to clean the car, first of all, you must remove the needle and a bobbing mechanism and remove the drive belt. First clean and smear the parts of the car head. To this end, you remove the front board, carefully wipe it and remove all the dirt out of the head. Details of the heads are wiped with a cloth, and the dirt from the head is removed with a wand with a rag wound on the end. Then the parts of the head are lubricated and turning the flywheel so that the oil is uniformly covered by the rubbing parts of the machine.

The lubricated head of the machine closes the front board.

Then, removing the needle and fitting records, rotate the car on the side and disassemble the mechanism of shuttle. Disassembled details of the shuttle mechanism are wiping with a clean cloth and clean all the details under the platform.

Special attention should be paid to the details of the fabric conveyor, where many dirt climbs.

During wipes of the shuttle shaft, you need to turn the flywheel so that the shaft turns to half a turn.

Then wipe the saucer and collect shuttle mechanism. The accuracy of the assembly is checked by turning the hoist. During the lubricant of parts under the platform, the wheelchair also turns, so that the oil is penetrated between the details.

After wiping and lubricating the parts of the platform, the machine is put in a normal position, open the side round shield or the cover at the top of the sleeves, wipe the parts inside the sleeve and lubricate them. Then close the shield, wear the drive belt and, lifting the paw, several seconds rotate the wheel, so that the lubricant is uniformly covered all the rubber surfaces. After that, we wipe the sleeve of the machine, the sleeve head, the platform and the desktop with a clean dry cloth, insert the needle, fill the threads and flash the flap of the fabric, checking the line and selling the car to tailoring products from a certain tissue.

In addition to the described full lubrication process, during the operation of the machine, it is necessary to lubricate its responsible parts as needed.

The most important grease nodes of the sewing machine are shown in rice.

clamping foot; 2. screw tension regulator thread; 3. plates; 4. a pitch’s spring; 5. lever; 6. the ear of the pyreter; 7. the needleidel; 8. the roset of the nitenapraman; 9. Front Board; 10-UCHO pyrethipor; 11. needle holder; 12. Hook Nitenastrik.

The normal operation of the machine largely depends on the state of the needle and the correctness of its installation. So working on the machine should be well able to choose, check and install the needle correctly.

Selection of the needle number depends on the tissue and number of the threads (Table. 2). The number of the machine needle is indicated on its head or on the boxes in which the needles are sold.

The needle for the sewing machine should be acute, smooth, without bends. Her ear and her grooves must be well polished, since otherwise the needle will tear thread.

Needle installation. The machine needle has a head, with the help of which it is fixed in the needle. Fastening the needle in the needle driver, it is necessary to ensure that its short grooves is facing that the end of the shuttle, which will capture the formed loop. You need to put the needle to the needle to failure, because otherwise it will not hold hard and break the proper operation of the machine. If the needle is standing above or

below normal position then the machine will skip stitches. There are also breakdowns of the needle and cliffs of threads.

Refueling upper thread. The coil with threads put on the rod 2 for the coil of the thread from the coil through the slide 8 of the nitenastor then downwards, from left to right, between tension plates 3 and boat for spring 4. Then the thread is directed upwards, from left to right, passed through the head of the pitch 6, then at the bottom of the front-line board 9. through the head of the pitch 10 in the guide (hook) 12 of the niteenstrorem and remove the needles from the side of the long yard.

Popular models and brands

Janome 412I

Electromechanical sewing machine with swing shuttle. There is an incandescent lamp lighting, sewing speed adjustment, reverse button, sleeve platform and accessories compartment. The machine makes 12 sewing operations; Loop performance. semi-automatic, four reception. Length lines are adjustable smoothly, zigzag width. step by step; The bobbin is wound automatically; Loop balancing is controlled. The kit includes a soft case. Plastic case, lubricant type. graphite, maximum stitch length 4 mm, width 5 mm. Hyte chop cutter. Nizhny TRAINTER TRAINTER, TRAINED. Types of lines: straight, secret, elastic, zigzag, imitation overlock. Power. 65 W, weight. 7 kg.

It is approximately 4,000. Janome 412I. a typical sewing machine for beginners: simple in learn, but at the same time convenient in work. Of course, to sew capricious fabrics like Silka, it will be necessary to buy special needles and upper fabric transporter. Janome 412I is designed in Japan, produced in Thailand.

Singer 2263

Electromechanical machine with vertical swing shuttle. She has 23 sewing operations; She knows how to semi-automatically embroider a butt loop, makes 6 types of working lines, 11 species of decorative, 5 types of knitted. Stitch length is adjustable to 4.2 mm, maximum stitch width 5 mm. Hyte chop cutter. Types of lines: straight, elastic, feston finish, secret feeding niza, duct, imitation overlock. The working area is illuminated by the incandescent lamp; There is a sleeve platform, accessories compartment, lightning lap, reverse button, automatic filamentaker, pressure knife pressure regulator on fabric. After winding the thread, the bobbin stops, the sewing speed is adjustable smoothly; The machine is designed to work with light and medium materials. Plastic Case, Details Lubrication. Graphite. Power 85 W.

Buyers do not complain about it, on the contrary, noted reliability in the work and quality of manufacture. True, it is mentioned that Singer 2263 does not have a separate switch for the lighting lamp, and the needles included in the initial bundle are identical numbers. Singer 2263 is produced in China.


Electronic sewing machine with rotary horizontal shuttle and automatic loop size determinant. A very solid device for advanced users: 20 sewing operations, 3 types of loops performed automatically, smooth adjustment of sewing speed, foot pressure regulator on fabric, electronic stabilizer prolque needle prolque, reverse button, the ability to turn off the fabric feed to the lower conveyor, LED lighting. Maximum height of the feet of 13 mm paws, the stitch length reaches 4 mm, width. 7 mm. Line: straight, elastic, impact overlock, secret, elastic secret. Included supplied paws for staining lightning, hubs and overlock. There is a “sewing adviser”, automatic threader, sleeve platform, needle position switch top / bottom and device automatic needle stop in the upper position, sewing double needle. Nizhny fabric conveyor seven, Hard Case. Sewing machine weight. 8 kg.

This beauty is about 10,000. Those who have already bought such, in one voice praise excellent management; It is said that it is easy to work on it is easy and pleasant, and, of course, entail the sewing patterns select. Juki HZL-K65 is designed in Japan, produced in China.

Brother Innov-`is 350 SE

For your age anniversary, Brother has released a stunning model of the electronic sewing machine. Brother Innov- Is 350 SE. I don’t even know what she has no. except the built-in bar and an embroidery block. And everything else, necessary for work, on the spot: here and the LCD display, and 294 sewing operations, and rotary horizontal shuttle, and smooth adjustment of the sewing speed, and the electronic stabilizer of the force puncture force, and the foot pressure regulator on the fabric, and the reverse button. But that is not all. This machine has the top fabric transporter, the ability to turn off the material to the bottom conveyor, the button for buttons, the automatic thread cutter, the sleeve platform, the possibility of sewing two needles, the needle position switch / bottom, and even the paw on it can not be raised by hand, but knee. Brother Innov- Is 350 SE performs 10 types of loops by automatt; Includes three legs immediately go: for stamping lightning, sewing buttons and overlock. Sevegments conveyor. Case Hard. Machine weight. 8.3 kg.

On Brother Innov- Is 350 SE you can sew any types of fabrics, but it has one wonderful feature: a great set of functions for quilting. Happy owners of Brother Innov- Is 350 SE Choir sing the diffilams and claim to work on it. solid pleasure. Manufacturer Country. Japan, Collector. China.

Husqvarna Emerald 116

Electromechanical sewing machine with horizontal rotary shuttle and button dimensions measurement system. This model is slightly different from its neighbors in class: its coil is located horizontally, there is a ruler on the plastic case, the bobbins turn on the hitchhiking. And everything else has the same as the same as in others: the needle standard is 130 / 705n, the reverse button, the pressure regulator of the foot on the fabric, a sleeve platform, accessories compartment, filamentaker. The number of sewing operations is 16, the maximum stitch length is 4 mm, the width is 5 mm, the loop is made automatically. 60 types of seams, including: straight line, elastic, elastic counted, imitation overlock. Included 8 paws are supplied: for example, for zipper zipper, adhesive, overlock.

It is approximately 11,500. Husqvarna Emerald 116 suites and beginners and already able to sew pretty sophisticated things. Almost all buyers are satisfied, advise the model to friends and acquaintances, resting the convenience and simplicity of work. Husqvarna. Swedish company, model produced in Taiwan.

Astralux 7300

And again we have an electronic sewing machine with a horizontal rotary shuttle, this time from Astralux. The name is straightforward: really, this model is worthy to be called “Star”. She has 504 sewing operations, touch control, the ability to sew two needles and mirroring lines, 4 types of fonts for monograms, Start / stop button. Included you will be offered a few paws: for quilting, hubs, lightning sewing, for sewing buttons, overlocked. The machine performs automatic 13 types of loops, maximum stitch length 5 mm, width 7 mm. Also there is a smooth adjustment of the sewing speed, the electronic stabilizer of the prolque needle puncture, the ability to turn off the fabric feed to the lower conveyor, the reverse button and the LED lighting, not to mention the display, a hostess platform, an automatic threader, the needle position switch top / bottom, compartment for accessories and accessories and soft storage case. Plastic Case, Silicone Lubrication. Power 50 W, weight 11 kg.

Setting after downtom

If the machine has not been used for a long time, you need to clean and lubricate metal components before setting. Remains of threads and dust sweep a rigid brush. Special engine oil for sewing equipment lubricated metal parts that are friction. Lubricant is convenient to apply a medical syringe.

After the procedure, I start the machine on a small speed without threads so that the lubricant is distributed throughout the mechanism, then perform a trial line.

Lecture notes. Equipment sewing production

The course of lectures was developed in accordance with the working program of the professional module. Performing textile products processing from various interdisciplinary materials. Textile processing technology for students’ professions 29.01.08 “Sewing Equipment Operator”.

Includes themes related to sewing production equipment.

Sewing production equipment is basic knowledge for mastering this profession. According to the Federal State Standard of secondary vocational education by profession 19.01.08 Sewing Equipment Operator, Professional Competence 2.one. Perform operations manually or on machines, automatic or semi-automatic equipment for sewing parts, nodes, products from textile materials includes knowledge of the device and commissioning of equipment for specific operations and materials.

The presented lecture course covers basic knowledge to master this competence.

Common machine of the machine 1022 m class. 6


Workers and their appointment in a 1022 m class machine. eight

Workers and their appointment in the car 51 a class. eight

Device for promoting materials. fourteen

Machine stitches and lines formation processes. fifteen

Refueling and adjusting the tension of the upper thread in the car 1022 m of class. eighteen

Refueling and adjusting the tension of the lower thread in the car 1022 m of class. nineteen

Causes and ways to eliminate lining lines. 20

Rules for regulating frequency lines and pressure legs. 20

Characteristics of works performed on sewing machines. 21

Rules of operation of the machine 1022 m class. 22

Rules of operation of corporate machines. 22

Specifications for machine work. 23

Types and appointment of various adaptations of small mechanization.24

Interstate Standard GOST 12807-2003 “Sewing products. The classification of stitches, lines and seams “gives the following definitions of terms:

Stitch. One element of the structure obtained in the thread method between two subsequent punctures of the needle material, with reels. between the tool contacts with the parts connected.

Line. Serial row of stitches.

The seam. Serial series of stitches on a material thickness in one or more layers.

Sewing connection. connection of two or more layers of material by one or more seams.

To connect parts of clothing and processing their sections, seams are used. In glue seams, materials are fasten with glue. Thermoplastic properties of synthetic materials are used in the welds.

Depending on the method of execution of stitches and lines are hand and machine. Depending on the type of weave, machine stitches are separated on shuttle and chains.

Technological Parameters stitch contain the following data: the number of threads (upper and lower), forming the line; Stitch length in millimeters (or number of stitches for 10 mm lines); Number of needles and threads. Stitches formed at an angle to line line are measured and width.

Schedule parameters: width seam; the number of lines and the distance between them; stitches frequency and density of tightening them in the line; Threads and needles.

Frequency stitch Depends on the type of material, destination and type of seam. The largest frequency has a line of connecting seams that are subjected to tensile loads during the operation of clothing (shoulder, side seams, stitching of sleeves in the armhole, middle neck, stepper and medium pants seams).

Width seam Depends on the type of product, material and operation performed. Thus, the width of the seam when heating the middle sections of the back, side sections of a coat, a jacket, when the sleeves are swapped in the armhole, the connection of the side, stepper, medium sections and the trouser premises is 10 ÷ 15 mm. When feeding the cuff and extensions of parts from the base material, the pumping of collars, the sharpening of the width of the racial seam is 7 ÷ 10 mm; When performing transaction operations of collars, cuffs, sides, valves and t.D 5 mm. The connection of the lining parts, the extensions to it and the insulation gasket is performed by a racial seam of 10 ÷ 12 mm wide.

In addition to compliance with the parameters of the seams, it is necessary to comply with the rules for performing seams by car, which determine the order of laying parts under the needle and the sequence of the suture, to know, for which item should be used, from which end the connection and other.

In accordance with GOST 12807-2003 “Sewing products. The classification of stitches, lines and seams “The following stitches are highlighted:

Stitches and stitches, consisting of one row of stitches of one species designate code, consisting of three characters. The first digit is the stitch class, the second and third. its appearance. Figure shows some types of stitches.

a) single-pitch single-line straight chain (code 101);

b) hand-made straight (code 209); c) two-dimensional unicineal shuttle (code 301);

d) two-dimensional one-centered zigzag shuttle (code 304)

Lines formed by various stitches or stitches of one species, but located in two or more rows, are designated by stitch codes, split off. For example: 401.502. two-dimensional single-line chain double decorative chain. If the lines are performed simultaneously, the stitching is lies in brackets, for example (401.502).

Setting the needle and shuttle machine interaction

From the settings of the shuttle node and the needle of the sewing machine, or rather from matching the gaps between them with correct values, the quality of the resulting result during the sewing process depends, in the absence of which in the lines there are also skipping, looping and cliffs of the lower and top threads can also occur in lines. In order to fulfill this setting, it is necessary to understand the principle of operation of the machine in the formation of the loop.

So when picked up the needle by 1.5-2 mm from its original position, the loop of the upper threads occurs, a slightly higher ears. At the same time, the nose of the shuttle must pass almost closely from the nipped needle. This distance should not exceed 0.15 mm. The magnitude of the nose of the shuttle before the needle should be 0.5 mm. These value are approximate and correspond to working with medium thickness tissues. Depending on the type of material used, they can change somewhat. It is possible to understand their numerical value only experimentally in the process of performing work, and such skills in most cases come with experience.

It is also worth noting the importance of the correct installation of the vertical position of the toothed rail. It is responsible for moving the fabric regarding the needle and sewing machine housing during operation. At that moment, when the needle is pushing the matter, the upper edges of the railclosures should be at the desktop level of the sewing machine.

Descriptions of the parameters of the sewing machine

General characteristics

Management Type There are four main types of sewing machines: mechanical, electromechanical, electronic and computer. Mechanical machines work from the mechanical effort of the user (manual or foot drive). Electromechanicals have an electric motor. an electric motor that leads in motion. The speed of work depends on the degree of pressing on the foot pedal. Function management is made by switches on the machine housing. Electronic sewing machines have an electric drive and an electronic control panel. Built-in microprocessor controls the movement of the needle relative to the fabric. Using the sewing machine panel, you can choose the necessary operation. Computer machines can be connected to a computer. It is possible to download new embroidery schemes and stitch types, as well as program sewing operations.

Type of shuttle Chelka can be three types: swing vertical, rotary horizontal and rotary vertical. Swinging shuttle, as a rule, applied in low-cost cars, it is installed vertically. In this case, the maximum sewing speed is low, there are limitations on the width of the line, and vibration is also observed during operation. Rotary shuttles (double-circuit shutuminians) provide more quiet and smooth operation without vibration and stitches passing. Shuttle can be installed vertically or horizontally. With a horizontal location, it is more convenient to fill the bobbins and sewing can be started without preliminary raising the bottom thread. The vertical location of the twin construction shuttle is applied only in expensive household or industrial sewing machines. They are characterized by high reliability and durability.

Adjusting the pressure of the foot on the fabric Availability of the ability to adjust the pressure of the paw on the fabric. The thicker the fabric, the less pressure is required. Also, the pressure regulator may be needed at the sewing knitwear, as it is stretched under the clamping paw, and having diminishing the pressure can be avoided. If there is a built-in top conveyor fabric in the machine, the pressure regulator is not needed. Depending on the sewing machine model, adjustment can be done manually using a regulator or automatically depending on the type of fabric.


Sewing speed adjustment Type of adjustment of maximum sewing speed. As a rule, the sewing speed depends on the degree of pressing the electric drive pedal, and the maximum speed can be installed using the switch. The speed can be adjusted smoothly or stepped. When smooth adjustment, you can more accurately configure sewing parameters.

Speed ​​limiter Function allows you to limit maximum sewing speed using a switch installed on a sewing machine housing. Despite the fact that all sewing machines allow you to adjust the speed of the degree of effort to press the pedal, the presence of a limiter will make it easier to facilitate the process of passing complex areas by fixing the convenient sewing speed and focusing on the elaboration.

Maximum Sewing Speed ​​from 400 to 6000 St / Minv Depending on the Sewing Machine Model Performs from 600 to 1600 Stitches per 1 minute without loss of sewing quality. Modern machines automatically adjust the force of puncture of the fabric, taking into account the type of needle, the stitch speed and the thickness of the canvas. It is important to remember that the stability and quality of the seam are also important.

Upper fabric conveyor Availability of upper fabric conveyor in addition to Lower. It is used for the simultaneous stretching of the upper and lower layers of the fabric. This conveyor will be especially useful when working with thin and slippery tissues. It turns out a smooth line and assemblies are not formed. In addition, when performing work related to quilting, with the help of the top conveyor, the mutual displacement of the layers of the fabric decreases.

Electronic Practitioner Pacolator Efforts Automatic Adjustment Prolque Procole Fabric Needle. At any speed of the engine rotation, the puncture force remains maximum. With the help of an electronic stabilizer, you can comfortably work with any tissue thickness.

Turning off the fabric feed mechanism. Availability of fabric conveyor operation. This feature may be needed when performing some operations (manual embroidery, sewing buttons) when the fabric is easier to move manually.

Sewing in several directions The ability to automatically move the fabric in all directions. As a rule, sewing machines can perform lines with a width of up to 8-9 mm. If there is a sewing opportunity in several directions, you can get wider lines. Such models are usually considered as embroidered machines.

Sewing without pedal Function that provides the possibility of sewing without using the pedal. To start sewing, you need to click on the special button on the case, and to stop the car. click it again.

Reverse Button Availability Button Reversed Stitching. When the machine is running in this mode, sewing is made in the opposite direction. As a rule, it is performed to fix the line. In more expensive machines, this function is performed using the “Automatic Stitching Automatic Mounting” mode.

Automatic fixing line Availability of the automatic fixation of the line when at the beginning and / or at the end of the line the filament is automatically performed. Also fixing can be done using the reverse mode when the line is performed at a short distance in the opposite direction.

stitch, length, sewing, machine, depends

Lift knife knee lever Having a special lever lifting legs in the upper position, which is convenient to press the knee.

Automatic foot rise. Availability of automatic lifting legs. At the end of the sewing operation, the paw automatically rises. This feature can be turned off and use to lift your paw with a manual or knee lever.

Max. Height of the lifting of the foot from 5 to 16 mm grades between the working surface and the paw in the upper position. we are thicker cloth, the biggest height is required.

Lighting the presence of a sewing machine of a built-in halogen lamp or incandescent lamp to illuminate the working surface.