Warm floor: Principles of creation, Temperature, pros and cons
If you decide to install flood floors in the house, then you should know how the optimum surface temperature should be, and how to regulate it. Only the correct adjustment of the automation of the heating system will help to achieve comfortable temperature in the house. In addition, the reductions and rules that are used today are presented to the temperature indicator of rigid norms, and they cannot be broken, because for each room and the type of flooring, the permissible heating temperature is established.
Sensors and thermostats are responsible for the temperature of the warm floor, when they are configured, various circumstances must be taken into account. If you need to answer the question, what temperature for warm water under the tile is optimal, will have to be taken into account by its natural properties. When legs come to such a floor, a unpleasant cold of the material is felt, while the surface of parquet or fees. Therefore, when you exhibit the temperature regime for the tile floor, it must be done slightly higher than for the parquet.
The temperature of the coolant in the warm floor
Conditions are most comfortable for a person when the temperature of the floor surface is 22-25 ° C, and air heating at the head level is 19-20 ° C.
Sanitary standards limit air temperature: in residential premises. 18-24 ° C (optimal 20-22ºС), in bathrooms and bathrooms. 18-26ºС (optimum 24-26ºС), in lobby, storeroom and staircase cells. 12-22ºС (optimal 16-18ºС).
In the structures of floor heating systems, in particular, water heat floors (VTP), the distribution and transmission of thermal energy occurs, which depend both on heat load and on the parameters of the heating panel (thermophysical and geometric), the diameter of the pipes of the heated floor circuits, their material and laying step, finish coating material, type of heat carrier, flow meter settings and t. D.
As is known, the heat transfer from one square meter of the heating panel of the VTP is 11 watts on each unit of temperature drop. At the same time, about 45% is transmitted due to heat transfer convection, and approximately 55% due to radiation.
Thus, to ensure air temperature at 20 ° C with the maximum comfortable value of 29 ° C, the heating load, which can be removed from the VTP surface will be about 100 W / m².
In most cases, the need for energy covers an effective surface heat transfer equal to 80 W / m², however, in order to make calculations based on this value, the building must comply with heat protection standards.
At the same time, the outer walls of the buildings in which the installation of VTP is assumed to have the recommended heat transfer coefficient K
When using outdoor heating systems, it is necessary to remember the restriction of the floor surface temperature.
The optimal temperature is 24-26ºС and to ensure thermal comfort on sanitary standards should not exceed: 29ºС for residential and office space, where people are constantly, 35ºС around the perimeter for the border area along the outer wall, 33ºС for kitchens and bathrooms, 27ºС in service and work premises where people work standing.
When calculating and designing the system, the permissible temperature of the floor must be taken into account, with a different location and length of the contours, the tube laying step, the feed rate and heat carrier heating.
It should be remembered that the maximum allowable temperature of the coolant for VTP is 55 ° C (45 ° C is recommended), and the dropper on the direct and reverse pipelines of the heated floor circuit should be 5-10 ° C (in practice of about 7 ° C).
The installation step is the value of the calculated one, but in any case should not exceed 30 cm, otherwise the uneven heating of the floor surface will occur with the appearance of warm and cold strips. So that the effect of the “temperature-strip floor” was not perceived by the foot foot, the maximum temperature difference along the length of the foot should not exceed 2 ° C.
There are several methods for regulating the temperature of the coolant. If we consider the VTP as the main heating system and do not take into account the room where it is substantially maintaining constant heating of the floor, the main methods of heat adjustment are the following:
According to some experts, the best is the method of controlling internal heating. The reason is that most buildings have a very high thermal inertia. This means that rapid changes in the outer temperature affect the inner very slowly.
In other words, the control of the internal temperature is harmonized with thermal inertia at home. When applying this method of regulation, the risk from the influence of peak values on the internal climate of the room is minimal.
A number of experts, on the contrary, considers the external temperature control by the best way to regulate. The reason is that in this case you can work with pre-calculated curves of the dependence of the heating of the supply water from the outdoor temperature.
The main advantage is that when there is an increase in the outdoor temperature, the control system immediately lowers the heating of the supply water, bringing to a minimum of unwanted heat loss. On the other hand, the decrease in the outdoor temperature always causes an increase in the heating of the supply water
Some experts consider the most advanced method for regulating the μrollimat The use of alternating flow of supply water with a constant temperature.
As a rule, the heat is given is estimated by measuring the difference between the feed and reverse water in the heating system. A large temperature difference indicates low heat transfer and, therefore, a small difference. on a high.
Each of these techniques has its supporters and opponents, however, in our opinion, to ensure good internal climate regulation is optimal to be combined by their use.
If you use a VTP not only for heating, but also to cool the rooms, then from the point of view of energy efficiency it is important that the temperature levels of heating and cooling systems constitute a united integer, and not competed with each other.
Here the most effective will be the use of weather-dependent regulation capable of turning off one system and include another depending on a certain level of outdoor temperature.
Maximum temperature of warm water floors
The concept of permissible temperature is determined in SNIP41-01-2003 “Heating, ventilation and air conditioning”. On it, the maximum heating of water warm floor can not exceed 26 ° C in the rooms where people are all the time.
If the maximum coolant temperature in the warm water floor is 55 degrees, it provides a comfortable heating of the floor. 28 ° C. It will not be superfluous and the specifics of the floor covering. They are withstanding 27 ° C, but if the floor opened with varnish, then it is impossible to cross the line of 21 ° C. If the carpet is on the floor, you will have to add about 5 ° C.
According to health standards, if in rooms where people are constantly being, should be 26 ° C, then in wet rooms. already 31. The same temperature should be foreseen in those rooms where people are staying for a while, and not constantly. Above the axis of the pipe should be 35 ° C, and on the parquet floor the maximum is indicated at 27 ° C.
What water warm floor temperature should be on the standards?
For whom maybe it will be a discovery, but the warm floor is practically not felt kicking. In the literal sense of the word. You can walk bare on the floor in anticipation that this is about to feel it warm and know all the charm of warm floors. But it was not there.
Adequate temperature of the surface of water warm floor does not exceed 28 degrees. That is why it is hard to feel something to feel. Body temperature is simply higher. And all that you experience are comfort from the fact that the legs are not cold.
In this case, the temperature of the coolant on the boiler usually does not exceed 45 degrees.
Of course, the numbers are not absolute and there are adjustments in a big and smaller side.
In most cases, the heat carrier is sufficiently supplied to the warm floor system, the temperature of which is in the range of from 50 to the maximum flow temperature of 70 degrees.
Such indicators allow to ensure the heating of an outdoor coating that does not exceed the optimal values. As a result, it is possible to prevent any damage to the materials used. tiles, carpet, linoleum, parquet and t. D.
The selection of water temperature or any other liquid to be supplied to the warm floor should be carried out on the basis of factors such as:
- Type of screed and its thickness;
- Features of the room operation;
- the presence of additional heating;
- type of floor covering;
- Purpose of the room and T. D.
- The desired air temperature in the room
Adjust the temperature of the coolant is necessary after testing the system for several hours.
Water warm floor temperature: what should be
Appointment of warm floors. the creation of the most favorable conditions for the residence of a person in residential and public buildings. Comfortable indoor temperature is achieved by various heating systems.
Among such structures, the device T water heating was gained. What water warm floor temperature should be to create a comfortable person’s stay in his housing? How can you adjust the temperature of the surface of a warm floor? We will try to answer these questions in this article.
The heating zones of the indoor volume of the room
Heated air from the surface of warm water floor should be evenly distributed in the height of the room.
There are rates of heating of air masses on temperature of warm water floors.
The table indicates what temperature should be in different zones of the internal volume of residential premises:
Water warm flooring
Water heating embedded in the lower overlap of the room, not everywhere possible.
What temperature should I set my water heater? (Safe water temperature ranges)
In apartment buildings, independent installation of such heating systems is prohibited, unless this is provided by the project.
Where there is no central gas supply and water supply, to do water heating floors is not profitable, and technically problematic.
Types of pipelines of warm floors
Hot water pipes are used from various materials:
Device of stitched polyethylene pipes
Stitched polyethylene. flexible material that allows you to bend pipes at an angle of 90o, which is very convenient for laying the pipeline on small areas (bathroom, toilet).
The inner surface of the hose is durable and smooth and withstands the maximum heating of water, to 100 ° C.
Polyurethane hoses light by weight. They are suitable for floor heating device on large areas. Such pipes attract consumers with their democratic price.
Metal-plastic pipelines. flexible and durable hoses. Material has a special strength and can serve 20 years or more.
Copper circuit will not fit into every budget
Copper pipelines in warm water floors practically do not have drawbacks, except for one. From high Copper pipelines are available only by limited consumer contingent.
Colored metal in its physical properties. the perfect heat transmitter. No maximum coolant temperature with such pipes will damage.
To avoid unnecessary heat losses, the length of each contour should be limited. For example, with a standard diameter of pipes 16 mm, the optimal length of the contour will be from 70 to 90 m. Read more about the length of the pipeline, see this
The modern household equipment market offers a large number of heating models for sale. Gas units are implemented in the trading network in outdoor and wall variants. Wall boilers are less powerful than stationary devices.
Heating Scheme Warm floor in a private house
The main body controlling the temperature of the water warm floor is the collector distribution center. The collector system is complex engineering equipment that adjusts the degree of heating the surface of the floor covering. Read more about how to position the collector in the house, look at this
Water floors management
The temperature of a warm floor can be adjusted by manually cranes of the collector node. Along with this, electronic valves are installed, which regulate the head of the coolant supply in each water circuit separately.
Control is carried out with a special shield with a display, which reflects information about which temperature of heating the surface of the floor covering is currently in a certain room.
Water heating temperature in warm floors
Heating water at the outlet of the boiler should be within 60 °. The optimal difference in the temperatures of the incoming stream and the inverse water supply of one contour ranges from 5 ° to 15 ° C. about how to adjust the temperature and what it should be, look at this
If the heating difference is less than 5 ° C, it will cause a drop in water pressure in the circuit. Excess maximum indicator 15 ° C will lead to uneven warming of the surface of the floor covering.
Practice shows that the most optimal option for heating the warm water floor water at the entrance and outlet is within 10. 12 ° C.
Comfortable temperature in private houses.
I would never have thought that the comfortable temperature of the person is in such a narrow range.
Not yet started applying thermostators.
Although they lived without thermostators before and did not exist.
In the afternoon, when it most likely there is no one at home, there is also no need to heat up to 22 degrees.
Of course, such desires arise when there is a way to embody them in practice.
Actually for this and need weekly room thermostators.
In the new programmable weekly room thermostators as a night temperature factory setting 16 degrees.
Probably in China so accepted. I can not imagine that someone sat in Russia at 16 degrees, if there is a thermostat with the “” button.
Another thing when the child is in the house. And when in the house floors from laminate on the tie and without carpets.
In the interroom corridor I have a linoleum, and there are no warm floors, and no carpets. And nothing. Desire to put a carpet no. Screed, laid on a polystyrene layer, does not cool down much.
But around this room, other premises and no one sits in it on the floor.
In residential premises, the operation of laminate on concrete would not be very pleasant.
What depends the heating rate of the system
The inclusion of heating requires much more energy consumption than to maintain the optimal temperature. Time will need not only to overclock the system, but also to overcome the inertia of the screed. All systems are divided into:
- Water. heat conductivity is carried out using antifreeze, ethylene glycol solutions or just water.
- Electric. coolant are carbohydrate rods, infrared film or electric cable.
Each system has positive and negative moments. But the heating of any of them depends on the depth of the location in the screed and the design of the thermal conductory itself. Approximate heating rate of 1.5 to 2 hours of one square. m provided that the screed has no more than 6 cm depth.
Heating of water floors
The specificity of the water system is such that the launch of the warming up is quite slow down and is 24 hours. But legs will feel comfort after 5-6 hours. The main time is spent on heating the screed. As soon as it reaches the planned temperature, the return to the room will begin. Therefore, if the screed of a small thickness (up to 5 cm), the heat of the floor will become the most comfortable much more quickly. On the other hand, when the system is disabled, the screed gives heating, and the room temperature remains for a period of up to day.
The biggest disadvantage of the device remains the difficulty of installation, which can only produce a master specialist.
Heating of electric floors
Electric coolants are heated on average in 8 minutes, all the rest occupies heating perimeter tie. In order for the temperature of the warm floor to reach the stated technical characteristics, it will take 12-24 hours (depends on the cabbage of the room). Legs will feel enough heat in two. When disconnected due to the heated screed, heat is saved just over 10 hours.
A separate system of the system is the thermostat, it is intended for stable saving the selected mode. If the deviation happens more than 3 °, the automatic return to the specified temperature occurs.
Rod and film systems
Modern technologies provide consumers even faster floors of floor heating. These are rod and infrared film floors. The heat transfer in them appears already in the first hours due to radiation directly into the air of the room. No costs for heating screed and floor covering. It will be enough to go to the specified temperature, it will be enough to 7-10 minutes, then the system goes to the heating mode of the room cube.
It is important to remember that the heating of the infrared floor has a maximum temperature of 30 °. Increasing this indicator, take into account the risks of failure of elements.